Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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426 articles
Research Article

Morbidity and Mortality Patterns in Children Admitted to Hospital in Thai Binh, Vietnam: A Five-year Descriptive Study with a Focus on Infectious Diseases

Thi Dung Pham, Van Thuan Hoang, Thi Loi Dao, Xuan Duong Tran, Duc Long Phi, Minh Manh To, Van Nghiem Dang, Van Khoi Dang, Thanh Tung Dao, Nam Thang Nguyen, Thi Thuy Vu, Duc Thanh Nguyen, Duy Cuong Nguyen, Nang Trong Hoang, Thanh Liem Vu, Thi Minh Chinh Nguyen, Philippe Minodier, Philippe Gautret
The objective of this study was to describe the overall pattern of morbidity and mortality of children seen at the Thai Binh Paediatric Hospital in Vietnam, with a focus on infectious diseases. A retrospective review of hospitalisation records was conducted from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019. Data...
Research Article

Estimating Catastrophic Costs due to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Bangladesh

Anita Sharif Chowdhury, Md Shakil Ahmed, Sayem Ahmed, Fouzia Khanam, Fariha Farjana, Saifur Reza, Shayla Islam, Akramul Islam, Jahangir A.M. Khan, Mahfuzar Rahman
To eliminate TB from the country by the year 2030, the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis (TB) Program is providing free treatment to the TB patients since 1993. However, the patients are still to make Out-of-their Pocket (OOP) payment, particularly before their enrollment Directly Observed Treatment Short-course...
Research Article

Knowledge, Perception, Attitudes and Behavior on Influenza Immunization and the Determinants of Vaccination

Khalil Choucair, Jack El Sawda, Sarah Assaad, Nadim G. El Chakhtoura, Habiba Hassouna, Nisreen Sidani, Mohamad Yasmin, Ali Rteil, Souha S. Kanj, Zeina A. Kanafani
Background: We sought to determine the knowledge of, perception, attitudes, and behaviors toward influenza virus and immunization, and the determinants of vaccination among students, patients, and Healthcare Workers (HCWs) at the American University of Beirut and its affiliated Medical Center. Methods:...
Review Article

Pride and Prejudice during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Misfortune of Inappropriate Clinical Trial Design

Shahrukh K. Hashmi, Edward De Vol, Fazal Hussain
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving global pandemic for which more than a thousand clinical trials have been registered to secure therapeutic effectiveness, expeditiously. Most of these are single-center non-randomized studies rather than multi-center, randomized controlled trials....
Review Article

Operationalizing the One Health Approach in Uganda: Challenges and Opportunities

Esther Buregyeya, Edwinah Atusingwize, Peninah Nsamba, David Musoke, Irene Naigaga, John David Kabasa, Hellen Amuguni, William Bazeyo
Uganda is considered as a ‘hot spot’ for emerging and re-emerging infectious disease epidemics. The country has experienced several epidemics including; Ebola, Marburg, plague, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever and Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever. Epidemics overwhelm health systems, devastate economies...
Review Article

An Evaluation of Health Policy Implementation for Hajj Pilgrims in Indonesia

Rustika Rustika, Ratih Oemiati, Al Asyary, Tety Rachmawati
Background: For last decades, the mortality rate of hajj pilgrims from Indonesia was between 2.1 and 3.2 per 1000 hajj pilgrims. At the same time, morbidity affected 87% of the elderly (>65 years old), of which 83% faced high risk of health problems. This is a complex problem affecting hajj health...
Research Article

Prevalence and Incidence of Low Back Pain in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Systematic Review

Mai A. Aldera, Caroline M. Alexander, Alison H. McGregor
Study Design: A systematic review. Objective: To identify published studies that assess the prevalence and incidence of Low Back Pain (LBP) in the Saudi Arabian population. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2018. Crosssectional...
Research Article

First 70 Days Critical Data Trend for COVID-19 in Four Regions of Northern Italy: A Pilot Study

Giovanni Ortosecco, Orazio Vaia
The new coronavirus syndrome (COVID-19) is a multi-organ pathological manifestation that, in severe forms, causes greater damage to the respiratory system, especially in the lung district with severe respiratory failure. In many cases, especially in elderly patients with high comorbidity degree, the...
Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Health Care Workers about Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Saudi Arabia

Unaib Rabbani, Abdullah Mohammed Al Saigul
Background and Objectives: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency. Health Care Workers (HCWs) with sound knowledge and practices can help curb the pandemic. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of HCWs about COVID-19 and compare physicians...
Research Article

Quality of Life of End Stage Renal Disease Patients Undergoing Dialysis in Southern Part of Kerala, India: Financial Stability and Inter-dialysis Weight Gain as Key Determinants

Kasi Visweswaran, Muhammed Shaffi, Philip Mathew, Minu Abraham, Jinbert Lordson, Premini Rajeev, Reena Thomas, Rajeev Aravindakshan, Jayadevan G, Kesavan Rajasekharan Nayar, Marthanda Pillai
Background: Quality of Life (QoL) reflects the quality and outcome of healthcare along with key indicators of performance such as mortality and morbidity. Objective: The aim of the study was to measure the QoL among patients with End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) on maintenance hemodialysis and to understand...
Research Article

First Prototype of the Infectious Diseases Seeker (IDS) Software for Prompt Identification of Infectious Diseases

F. Baldassi, O. Cenciarelli, A. Malizia, P. Gaudio
The rapid detection of ongoing outbreak – and the identification of causative pathogen – is pivotal for the early recognition of public health threats. The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases are linked to several determinants, both human factors – such as population density, travel, and...
Research Article

Adult Orbital Lesions in Saudi Arabia: A Multi-centered Demographic Study with Clinicopathological Correlation

Abrar K. Alsalamah, Azza MY. Maktabi, Hind M. Alkatan
The demographics, clinical features, and histopathological classification of orbital space-occupying lesions in adults have not been widely described in our part of the world except for the pediatric population. In this retrospective study, we collected 110 consecutive adult patients (18 years and older)...
Research Article

Ecological Study on Differences in COVID-19 Fatality among Wuhan, Rest of Hubei, and Rest of China

Youfu Ke, Jianli Cui, Yunkeung Wong
Background: China’s vigorous anti-COVID-19 campaign has been going on for three months since January 20, which has contained the spread of the virus across China. Objectives: Epidemiological investigations found that COVID-19 fatality rates in Wuhan, rest parts of Hubei province except Wuhan (Rest of...
Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward COVID-19 among Egyptians

Zeinab A. Kasemy, Wael A. Babah, Shimaa K. Zewain, Mohammed G. Haggag, Safa H. Alkalash, Enas Zahran, Dalia E. Desouky
COVID-19 is a public Health Emergency of International Concern. The aim of this work was to assess the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among Egyptians toward COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1st to April 1st, on 3712 participants of different ages and sex. An...
Research Article

Is Physical Activity Associated with Mental Health among Chinese Adolescents during Isolation in COVID-19 Pandemic?

Sifan Kang, Yuliang Sun, Xinxin Zhang, Fangjun Sun, Bingqi Wang, Wenfei Zhu
Background: Restricted outdoor activities and online learning during COVID-19 pandemic may pose threats on the physical and mental health of Chinese adolescents in middle schools. The study was to explore the relationship of Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Time (SED) with mood states among Chinese...
Research Article

Evaluating the Effects of Climate and Environmental Factors on Under-5 Children Malaria Spatial Distribution Using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs)

Chigozie Louisa Jane Ugwu, Temesgen Zewotir
Although malaria burden has declined globally following scale up of intervention, the disease has remained a leading cause of hospitalization and deaths among children aged under-5 years in Nigeria. Malaria is known to be related to climate and environmental conditions. Previous research has usually...
Research Article

Estimated Number of People who Inject Drugs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Findings from a Two-survey Capture–Recapture Population Size Estimation Exercise

Nghia Van Khuu, Phuc Duy Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Hoa Thi Yen Luong, Van Thi Thu Tieu, Hau Phuc Tran, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Meade Morgan, Abu S. Abdul-Quader
Background: HIV/AIDS program managers in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam have always relied on the police reports and the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package for population size estimation of People Who Inject Drugs (PWID). Methods: We used Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS) to implement a two-source...
Research Article

Dietary Intakes, Patterns, and Determinants of Children Under 5 Years from Marginalized Communities in Odisha: A Cross-sectional Study

Shantanu Sharma, Faiyaz Akhtar, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Sunil Mehra
Pre-school age (3–5 years) children are vulnerable to malnutrition due to poor dietary intake, dietary habits, and socio-economic conditions. Children from marginalized families are more vulnerable than non-marginalized families due to limited access to health- and nutrition-related services, besides...
Research Article

Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Epidemiology of Food-borne Botulism in Iran

Mohammad Reza Montazer Khorasan, Mohammad Rahbar, Abed Zahedi Bialvaei, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Fereshte Shahcheraghi, Babak Eshrati
Background: Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by toxins produced by several Clostridium species. This work presents the surveillance results of botulism in Iran, with the distribution of the cases by regions and by vehicle of transmission. Methods: We describe the findings of the Centers...
Research Article

Epidemiological Profile of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Patients with Digestive Symptoms in Algeria

Houria Kasmi, Koula Doukani, Ahmad Ali, Souhila Tabak, Hasna Bouhenni
Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Algerian patients with peptic disorders and evaluate the impact of different epidemiological factors (age, sex, sampling site, presence or absence of H. pylori, and type of pathology related to this...
Research Article

Epidemic Landscape and Forecasting of SARS-CoV-2 in India

Aravind Lathika Rajendrakumar, Anand Thakarakkattil Narayanan Nair, Charvi Nangia, Prabal Kumar Chourasia, Mehul Kumar Chourasia, Mohammed Ghouse Syed, Anu Sasidharan Nair, Arun B. Nair, Muhammed Shaffi Fazaludeen Koya
Background: India was one of the countries to institute strict measures for Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) control in the early phase. Since, then, the epidemic growth trajectory was slow before registering an explosion of cases due to local cluster transmissions. Methods:...
Research Article

Factors Associated with Cesarean Section among Primiparous Women in Georgia: A Registry-based Study

Ingvild Hersoug Nedberg, Charlotta Rylander, Finn Egil Skjeldestad, Ellen Blix, Tamar Ugulava, Erik Eik Anda
Cesarean section rates remain high in Georgia. As a cesarean section in the first pregnancy generally lead to a cesarean section in subsequent pregnancies, primiparous women should be targeted for prevention strategies. The aim of the study was to assess factors associated with cesarean section among...
Research Article

HIV Prevalence, Risk Factors for Infection, and Uptake of Prevention, Testing, and Treatment among Female Sex Workers in Namibia

Anna Jonas, Sadhna V. Patel, Frieda Katuta, Andrew D. Maher, Karen M. Banda, Krysta Gerndt, Ismelda Pietersen, Neia Menezes de Prata, Nicholus Mutenda, Tuli Nakanyala, Esme Kisting, Brown Kawana, Ann-Marie Nietschke, Dimitri Prybylski, Willi McFarland, David W. Lowrance
Background: In most settings, Female Sex Workers (FSW) bear a disproportionate burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease worldwide. Representative data to inform the development of behavioral and biomedical interventions for FSW in Namibia have not been published. Objectives: Our objectives...
Perspective

Establishing Medical Coverage and Epidemiological Surveillance during the Grand Magal of Touba in Senegal: A Public Health Need

Cheikh Sokhna, Balla Mbacké Mboup, Ndiaw Goumbala, Mamadou Dieng, Ahmadou Bamba Sylla, Didier Raoult, Philippe Parola, Philippe Gautret
The Grand Magal is a religious pilgrimage that takes place in Senegal. An estimated 4–5 million individuals yearly gather in the holy city of Touba. Pilgrims comes from the whole Senegal and surrounding countries and from countries outside of Africa where Mouride Senegalese emigrated. It is the largest...
Research Article

Does Being Transported by Emergency Medical Services Improve Compliance with the Surviving Sepsis Bundle and Mortality Rate? A Retrospective Cohort Study

Faisal Alhusain, Hanin Alsuwailem, Alanoud Aldrees, Ahad Bugis, Sarah Alzuhairi, Sami Alsulami, Yaseen Arabi, Nawfal Aljerian
Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between patients with severe sepsis or septic shock being transported to the Emergency Department (ED) by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and the compliance with the 3-h sepsis resuscitation bundle [Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC)], and to...
Research Article

Improved Access to Diagnostics for Rhodesian Sleeping Sickness around a Conservation Area in Malawi Results in Earlier Detection of Cases and Reduced Mortality

Marshal Lemerani, Fredrick Jumah, Paul Bessell, Sylvain Biéler, Joseph Mathu Ndung’u
Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (rHAT) is a zoonotic disease transmitted by tsetse flies from wild and domestic animals. It presents as an acute disease and advances rapidly into a neurological form that can only be treated with melarsoprol, which is associated with a high...
Research Article

Geographic, Subject, and Authorship Trends among LMIC-based Scientific Publications in High-impact Global Health and General Medicine Journals: A 30-Month Bibliometric Analysis

Marium Ghani, Rowan Hurrell, Avelino C. Verceles, Michael T. McCurdy, Alfred Papali
The globalization of medical research and global health’s increasing popularity worldwide have resulted in greater geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity of studies published in the scientific literature. Yet the geographic distribution, authorship representation, and subject trends among Low-/Low-Middle-Income...
Review Article

The Increasing Trends in Cases of the Most Common Cancers in Saudi Arabia

Eman Chaudhri, Weam Fathi, Fazal Hussain, Shahrukh K. Hashmi
Background: Cancer epidemiology in Saudi Arabia (SA) differs from that of the USA with respect to types of common malignancies. Hematologic malignancies are among the top five cancers prevalent in SA, including lymphoma and leukemia. Most common malignancies in SA also include breast, thyroid, and colorectal...
Research Article

Magnitude and Reasons for Gaps in Tuberculosis Diagnostic Testing and Treatment Initiation: An Operational Research Study from Dakshina Kannada, South India

Imaad Mohammed Ismail, Akshaya Kibballi Madhukeshwar, Poonam Ramesh Naik, Badarudeen Mohammad Nayarmoole, Srinath Satyanarayana
Background: In India, ensuring all Persons with Presumptive TB (PPTB) undergo TB diagnostic tests and initiating all diagnosed TB patients on treatment are two major implementation challenges. Objectives: In a coastal district of Karnataka state, South India, to (1) determine the number and proportion...
Research Article

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Middle Eastern Patients

Heba Adam, Maryam Alqassas, Omar I. Saadah, Mahmoud Mosli
Background and Aims: The Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBDs), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC), are gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders with many Extraintestinal Manifestations (EIMs). Previously reported incidences of EIMs in IBD patients have ranged from 10% to 50%. The large variation...
Research Article

The Rise of Noncommunicable Diseases in Kenya: An Examination of the Time Trends and Contribution of the Changes in Diet and Physical Inactivity

Edward Michieka Onyango, Benjamin Moranga Onyango
Pages: 1 - 7
This study examined correlations of historical changes in diet and physical inactivity with the rise of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) in Kenya. Historical data on diet, wage jobs by industry, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), and morbidity due to NCDs were extracted from Kenya Statistical...
Review Article

Can pervasive sensing address current challenges in global healthcare?

Louis Atallah, Benny Lo, Guang-Zhong Yang
Pages: 1 - 13
Important challenges facing global healthcare include the increase in the number of people affected by escalating healthcare costs, chronic and infectious diseases, the need for better and more affordable elderly care and expanding urbanisation combined with air and water pollution. Recent advances in...
Research Article

Availability of results from clinical research: Failing policy efforts

Tatyana A. Shamliyan, Robert L. Kane
Pages: 1 - 12
Objectives: Trial registration has a great potential to increase research transparency and public access to research results. This study examined the availability of results either in journal publications or in the trial registry from all studies registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: All 137,612...
Commentary

COVID-19 in the Shadows of MERS-CoV in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mazin Barry, Maha Al Amri, Ziad A. Memish
Pages: 1 - 3
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has plagued the Middle East since it was first reported in 2012. Recently, at the end of December 2019, a cluster of pneumonia cases were reported from Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China, linked to a wet seafood market with a new coronavirus identified...
Research Article

Assessing the overuse of antibiotics in children with URTIs in Saudi Arabia: Development of the parental perception on antibiotics scale (PAPA scale)

Arwa Alumran, Xiang-Yu Hou, Cameron Hurst
Pages: 3 - 10
Background: Antibiotic overuse is influenced by several factors that can only be measured using a valid and reliable psychosocial measurement instrument. This study aims to establish translation and early stage validation of an instrument recently developed by this research team to measure factors influencing...
Research Article

Demographics of Pediatric Orbital Lesions: A Tertiary Eye Center Experience in Saudi Arabia

Hind Manaa Alkatan, Faisal Al Marek, Sahar Elkhamary
Pages: 3 - 10
Orbital lesions vary in their classification, incidence, and presentation depending on the age and geographic distribution. Such lesions in the pediatric age group have been studied extensively because of the possibility of faster progression of orbital involvement and the higher risk of morbidity in...
Research Article

Counselling services in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) in Delhi, India: An assessment through a modified version of UNICEF-PPTCT tool

Arvind Kumar, Bir Singh, Yadlapalli S. Kusuma
Pages: 3 - 13
The study aims to assess the counselling services provided to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) under the Indian programme of prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV (PPTCT). Five hospitals in Delhi providing PMTCT services were randomly selected. A total of 201 post-test...
Announcement

“Nurses and Midwives: Clean Care Is in Your Hands”: The May 5, 2020, World Health Organization SAVE LIVES: Clean Your Hands Campaign☆

Alexandra Peters, Nasim Lotfinejad, Chloé Guitart, Alice Simniceanu, Maria Clara Padoveze, Tcheun Borzykowski, Benedetta Allegranzi, Didier Pittet
Pages: 4 - 5
Review Article

Climate change impacts on water salinity and health

Paolo Vineis, Queenie Chan, Aneire Khan
Pages: 5 - 10
It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated...
Review Article

Are we facing a noncommunicable disease pandemic?

Luke Allen
Pages: 5 - 9
The global boom in premature mortality and morbidity from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) shares many similarities with pandemics of infectious diseases, yet public health professionals have resisted the adoption of this label. It is increasingly apparent that NCDs are actually communicable conditions,...