THE IMPACT OF EXPENDITURE INEQUALITY AND SOCIOECONOMIC ON CRIME RATES IN INDONESIA. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY USING SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS AND GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION
Donny Hardiawan, Arief Anshory Yusuf, Bagdja Muljarijadi
Available Online January 2019.
- https://doi.org/10.2991/assdg-18.2019.14How to use a DOI?
- crime, socioeconomic, expenditure inequality, spatial econometric, geographically weighted regression, spatial dependence, spatial heterogeneity
- Social disorganization theory has indicated that socioeconomic have a negative impact on crime. In contrast to the study literature, Indonesia data showed that increasing in economic growth and decreasing in poverty and unemployment rates lead to higher crime rates. Based on previous literature, we hypotized this issue due to the increasing expenditure inequality in Indonesia. While majority of literatures used Gini ratio, we utilized Gini, Palma, and Decile dispersion ratio as an indicator of expenditure inequality. We attempts to used victimization data survey from SUSENAS, while the most of part of research of crime in Indonesia are used police reported data. Using cross-section data at district level in Indonesia in 2015, we employ the spatial econometrics method and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to (1) capture the relationship between inequality and socioeconomic on crime rates, (2) evaluate the impact of spatial dependence on crime rates, and (3) explore spatial heterogeneity in association between inequality and socioeconomic on crime rates. This study used 3 types of crime rates (total, property and violent crime rates) as the dependent variable and median expenditure per capita, unemployment, poverty, density and expenditure inequality as independent variables. The results suggest that crime is one of negative externalities of the economy. The regression analysis revealed that poverty and unemployment do not affect robust to crime rates, hence poverty and unemployment are not the main factors in causing crime in Indonesia. Furthermore, the results of regression analysis showed that Inequality has a significant positive effect on all types of crime rates, and the GWR regression result indicated that inequality has a positive effect on criminality in all districts. Therefore, among other variables used in this study, inequality is considered as the main factor causing criminality in Indonesia.
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- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC license.
Cite this article
TY - CONF AU - Donny Hardiawan AU - Arief Anshory Yusuf AU - Bagdja Muljarijadi PY - 2019/01 DA - 2019/01 TI - THE IMPACT OF EXPENDITURE INEQUALITY AND SOCIOECONOMIC ON CRIME RATES IN INDONESIA. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY USING SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS AND GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION BT - Achieving and Sustaining SDGs 2018 Conference: Harnessing the Power of Frontier Technology to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (ASSDG 2018) PB - Atlantis Press SP - 150 EP - 169 SN - 2352-5398 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/assdg-18.2019.14 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/assdg-18.2019.14 ID - Hardiawan2019/01 ER -