Clinical Hematology International

Volume 3, Issue 1, March 2021, Pages 3 - 12

The Many Faces of Cytokine Release Syndrome-Related Coagulopathy

Authors
Jiasheng Wang*, ORCID, John Doran
Department of Internal Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
*Corresponding author. Email: jxw1170@case.edu
Corresponding Author
Jiasheng Wang
Received 14 November 2020, Accepted 10 January 2021, Available Online 28 January 2021.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210117.001How to use a DOI?
Keywords
Cytokine; Coagulopathy; CAR T cell; Hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis; COVID-19
Abstract

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has been increasingly recognized in various conditions including the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is not only associated with systemic inflammatory symptoms, but also hematological complications such as coagulopathy. CRS can affect various components of the coagulation pathway, including the endothelial cells, platelets, coagulation cascade, and fibrinolytic system. Different causes of CRS, such as primary hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH), chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy, and COVID-19, have different cytokine profiles and coagulopathy presentations, with microvascular thrombosis surfacing as a common pathology. HLH shares many features with severe CRS, and is characterized by severe consumptive coagulopathy, frequent disseminated intravascular coagulation and an increased bleeding risk. CAR T-cell therapy is characterized by frequent and mild consumptive coagulopathy, as well as an increased risk of thrombosis. While consumptive coagulopathy is rare in COVID-19, it is associated with an increased thrombotic risk. The differences can be explained by the severity of CRS and underlying conditions associated with coagulopathy. Various treatments, including cytokine inhibitors, plasma exchange, Janus kinases inhibitors, complement blockade, and corticosteroids are being studied to mitigate CRS-related coagulopathy.

Copyright
© 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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Journal
Clinical Hematology International
Volume-Issue
3 - 1
Pages
3 - 12
Publication Date
2021/01/28
ISSN (Online)
2590-0048
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210117.001How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

Cite this article

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Jiasheng Wang
AU  - John Doran
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/01/28
TI  - The Many Faces of Cytokine Release Syndrome-Related Coagulopathy
JO  - Clinical Hematology International
SP  - 3
EP  - 12
VL  - 3
IS  - 1
SN  - 2590-0048
UR  - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210117.001
DO  - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210117.001
ID  - Wang2021
ER  -