Artery Research

Volume 20, Issue C, December 2017, Pages 12 - 18

Associations between smoking and alcohol use and arterial elasticity in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension: A cross-sectional study

Authors
Noor-Ahmed Jatoia, b, *, Waleed-Ibrahim Al-Bakera, Afnan Al-Muhannaa, Fahad Al-Muhannaa, Stella-Maria Kyveloub, Faisal Sharifb
aDepartment of Internal Medicine, King Fahd University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Imam Abdul-Rahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
bDepartment of Medicine, Galway University Hospital and School of Medicine, Clinical Sciences Institute National University of Ireland Galway, Galway University Hospital, Galway, Ireland
*Corresponding author. Vascular Medicine Unit, Diabetes Care Centre (Internal Medicine Department), King Fahd University Hospital and College of Medicine, Imam Abdul Rahman Bin Faisal University, 31952 Al-Khobar, PO Box 40349, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. E-mail address: najatoi@iau.edu.sa (N.-A. Jatoi).
Corresponding Author
Noor-Ahmed Jatoi
Received 9 September 2017, Accepted 10 October 2017, Available Online 27 October 2017.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artres.2017.10.196How to use a DOI?
Keywords
Smoking, Alcohol consumption, Essential hypertension, Arterial stiffness
Abstract

Objective: To assess the relationship between smoking and alcohol use (separately and combined) on arterial stiffness in patients with essential hypertension.

Materials and Methods: We assessed never-treated newly diagnosed patients with essential hypertension (n = 446) aged 18–80 years (52% males). Measurements included aortic stiffness, assessed as pulse wave velocity (PWV) (Complior), wave reflection (augmentation index [AIx]), and transit time [T R] SphygmoCor).

Results: The 446 patients were categorized as: non-smokers (n = 204), ex-smokers (n = 121), current smokers (n = 121), non-drinkers (n = 59), moderate drinkers (n = 281), heavy drinkers (n = 106). Both AIx and PWV were significantly higher in current smokers than in ex-smokers and non-smokers [(p < 0.02), (p < 0.01), respectively]. AIx and PWV were higher in non-drinkers followed by heavy drinkers and moderate drinkers [(p < 0.003), (p < 0.008), respectively]. Among current and ex-smokers there was no significant difference in PWV or AIx by alcohol consumption (p = NS), while in non-smokers AIx was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in the non-drinkers followed by heavy drinkers and those with moderate alcohol consumption and PWV was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in heavy drinkers followed by non-drinkers and those with moderate alcohol consumption.

Conclusion: Moderate alcohol consumption exerts a favorable effect on arterial stiffness in essential hypertensive patients. However, the combined effect of smoking cancels this favorable effect.

Copyright
© 2017 Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC license.

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Journal
Artery Research
Volume-Issue
20 - C
Pages
12 - 18
Publication Date
2017/10
ISSN (Online)
1876-4401
ISSN (Print)
1872-9312
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artres.2017.10.196How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2017 Association for Research into Arterial Structure and Physiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC license.

Cite this article

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Noor-Ahmed Jatoi
AU  - Waleed-Ibrahim Al-Baker
AU  - Afnan Al-Muhanna
AU  - Fahad Al-Muhanna
AU  - Stella-Maria Kyvelou
AU  - Faisal Sharif
PY  - 2017
DA  - 2017/10
TI  - Associations between smoking and alcohol use and arterial elasticity in patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension: A cross-sectional study
JO  - Artery Research
SP  - 12
EP  - 18
VL  - 20
IS  - C
SN  - 1876-4401
UR  - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artres.2017.10.196
DO  - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artres.2017.10.196
ID  - Jatoi2017
ER  -