History of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
- https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001How to use a DOI?
- Acute promeloctic leukemia; arsenic trioxide; all-trans retinoic acid
In this article, we discuss the history of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) from the pre-therapeutic era, which began after its recognition by Hillestad in 1947 as a nosological entity, to the present day. It is a paradigmatic history that has transformed the “most malignant leukemia form” into the most curable one. The identification of a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17, resulting in fusion between the promyelocytic leukemia gene and the retinoic acid receptor alpha, has been crucial in understanding the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, and responsible for the peculiar response to targeted therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). We review the milestones that marked successive therapeutic advances, beginning with the introduction of the first successful chemotherapy in the early 1970s, followed by a subsequent incorporation of ATRA and ATO in the late 1980s and early 1990s which have revolutionized the treatment of this disease. Over the past two decades, treatment optimization has relied on the combination of ATRA, ATO, and chemotherapy according to risk-adapted approaches, which together with improvements in supportive therapy have paved the way for cure for most patients with APL.
- © 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
- Open Access
- This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Cite this article
TY - JOUR AU - Miguel A. Sanz AU - Eva Barragán PY - 2021 DA - 2021/07/19 TI - History of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia JO - Clinical Hematology International SP - 142 EP - 152 VL - 3 IS - 4 SN - 2590-0048 UR - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001 DO - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001 ID - Sanz2021 ER -