Clinical Hematology International

Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2021, Pages 142 - 152

History of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Authors
Miguel A. Sanz1, *, ORCID, Eva Barragán2, 3
1Department of Hematology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe, Valencia, Spain
2Clinical Laboratory, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain
3Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Carlos III Institute, Madrid, Spain
*Corresponding author. Email: msanz@uv.es
Corresponding Author
Miguel A. Sanz
Received 11 April 2021, Accepted 3 June 2021, Available Online 19 July 2021.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001How to use a DOI?
Keywords
Acute promeloctic leukemia; arsenic trioxide; all-trans retinoic acid
Abstract

In this article, we discuss the history of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) from the pre-therapeutic era, which began after its recognition by Hillestad in 1947 as a nosological entity, to the present day. It is a paradigmatic history that has transformed the “most malignant leukemia form” into the most curable one. The identification of a balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17, resulting in fusion between the promyelocytic leukemia gene and the retinoic acid receptor alpha, has been crucial in understanding the mechanisms of leukemogenesis, and responsible for the peculiar response to targeted therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). We review the milestones that marked successive therapeutic advances, beginning with the introduction of the first successful chemotherapy in the early 1970s, followed by a subsequent incorporation of ATRA and ATO in the late 1980s and early 1990s which have revolutionized the treatment of this disease. Over the past two decades, treatment optimization has relied on the combination of ATRA, ATO, and chemotherapy according to risk-adapted approaches, which together with improvements in supportive therapy have paved the way for cure for most patients with APL.

Copyright
© 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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Journal
Clinical Hematology International
Volume-Issue
3 - 4
Pages
142 - 152
Publication Date
2021/07/19
ISSN (Online)
2590-0048
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

Cite this article

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Miguel A. Sanz
AU  - Eva Barragán
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/07/19
TI  - History of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia
JO  - Clinical Hematology International
SP  - 142
EP  - 152
VL  - 3
IS  - 4
SN  - 2590-0048
UR  - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001
DO  - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210703.001
ID  - Sanz2021
ER  -