Clinical Hematology International

Volume 3, Issue 2, June 2021, Pages 47 - 68

Passive Immunity Should and Will Work for COVID-19 for Some Patients

Authors
Nevio Cimolai1, 2, *, ORCID
1Faculty of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children’s and Women’s Health Centre of British Columbia, 4480 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3V4
Corresponding Author
Nevio Cimolai
Received 23 January 2021, Accepted 2 March 2021, Available Online 16 April 2021.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210328.001How to use a DOI?
Keywords
COVID-19; coronavirus; plasma; antibody; immunity
Abstract

In the absence of effective antiviral chemotherapy and still in the context of emerging vaccines for severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 infections, passive immunotherapy remains a key treatment and possible prevention strategy. What might initially be conceived as a simplified donor–recipient process, the intricacies of donor plasma, IV immunoglobulins, and monoclonal antibody modality applications are becoming more apparent. Key targets of such treatment have largely focused on virus neutralization and the specific viral components of the attachment Spike protein and its constituents (e.g., receptor binding domain, N-terminal domain). The cumulative laboratory and clinical experience suggests that beneficial protective and treatment outcomes are possible. Both a dose- and a time-dependency emerge. Lesser understood are the concepts of bioavailability and distribution. Apart from direct antigen binding from protective immunoglobulins, antibody effector functions have potential roles in outcome. In attempting to mimic the natural but variable response to infection or vaccination, a strong functional polyclonal approach attracts the potential benefits of attacking antigen diversity, high antibody avidity, antibody persistence, and protection against escape viral mutation. The availability and ease of administration for any passive immunotherapy product must be considered in the current climate of need. There is never a perfect product, but yet there is considerable room for improving patient outcomes. Given the variability of human genetics, immunity, and disease, and given the nuances of the virus and its potential for change, passive immunotherapy can be developed that will be effective for some but not all patients. An understanding of such patient variability and limitations is just as important as the understanding of the direct interactions between immunotherapy and virus.

Copyright
© 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

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Journal
Clinical Hematology International
Volume-Issue
3 - 2
Pages
47 - 68
Publication Date
2021/04/16
ISSN (Online)
2590-0048
DOI
https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210328.001How to use a DOI?
Copyright
© 2021 International Academy for Clinical Hematology. Publishing services by Atlantis Press International B.V.
Open Access
This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

Cite this article

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Nevio Cimolai
PY  - 2021
DA  - 2021/04/16
TI  - Passive Immunity Should and Will Work for COVID-19 for Some Patients
JO  - Clinical Hematology International
SP  - 47
EP  - 68
VL  - 3
IS  - 2
SN  - 2590-0048
UR  - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210328.001
DO  - https://doi.org/10.2991/chi.k.210328.001
ID  - Cimolai2021
ER  -