Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health

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465 articles
Research Article

Clinical Decision-making among Emergency Physicians: Experiential or Rational?

Khalid Talal Aldamiri, Faisal Ahmed Alhusain, Amal Almoamary, Khalid Alshehri, Nawfal Al Jerian
Pages: 65 - 68
It has been postulated that everyone has an affinity for one of two cognitive approaches: experiential (intuitive) or rational (conscious). The aim of this study was to analyze the thinking processes of Saudi emergency physicians at nine hospitals in Riyadh. This was a cross-sectional study, which was...
Research Article

Does emotion and its daily fluctuation correlate with depression? A cross-cultural analysis among six developing countries

Derwin K.C. Chan, Xin Zhang, Helene H. Fung, Martin S. Hagger
Pages: 65 - 74
Utilizing a World Health Organization (WHO) multi-national dataset, the present study examined the relationships between emotion, affective variability (i.e., the fluctuation of emotional status), and depression across six developing countries, including China (N = 15,050); Ghana (N = 5,573); India (N...
Research Article

Influence of Women’s Empowerment on Place of Delivery in North Eastern and Western Kenya: A Cross-sectional Analysis of the Kenya Demographic Health Survey

Elizabeth J. Anderson, Joy J. Chebet, Ibitola O. Asaolu, Melanie L. Bell, John Ehiri
Pages: 65 - 73
Background: Labor and delivery under the supervision of a skilled birth attendant have been shown to promote positive maternal and neonatal outcomes; yet, more than a third of births in Kenya occur outside a health facility. We investigated the association between measures of women’s empowerment and...
Short Communication

HCV infection prevalence in a population recruited at health centers in Jordan

Waseem Hamoudi, Sami Adel Sheikh Ali, Mohammad Abdallat, Chris R. Estes, Homie A. Razavi
Pages: 67 - 71
Background: Jordan lacks statistical data regarding prevalence of HCV. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HCV in selected areas of Jordan (north, middle and south of Jordan). Methods: A random sample of 700 patients attending health centers was used to determine HCV prevalence. ELISA testing was used...
Research Article

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and addressing the challenges

Seif S. Al-Abri, Doaa M. Abdel-Hady, Idris S. Al-Abaidani
Pages: 67 - 75
Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and...
Research Article

Health Insurance: Awareness, Utilization, and its Determinants among the Urban Poor in Delhi, India

Yadlapalli S. Kusuma, Manisha Pal, Bontha V. Babu
Pages: 69 - 76
This study reports the awareness, access, and utilization of health insurance by the urban poor in Delhi, India. The study included 2998 households from 85 urban clusters spread across Delhi. The data were collected through a pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was...
Research Article

Morbidity and Mortality Patterns in Children Admitted to Hospital in Thai Binh, Vietnam: A Five-year Descriptive Study with a Focus on Infectious Diseases

Thi Dung Pham, Van Thuan Hoang, Thi Loi Dao, Xuan Duong Tran, Duc Long Phi, Minh Manh To, Van Nghiem Dang, Van Khoi Dang, Thanh Tung Dao, Nam Thang Nguyen, Thi Thuy Vu, Duc Thanh Nguyen, Duy Cuong Nguyen, Nang Trong Hoang, Thanh Liem Vu, Thi Minh Chinh Nguyen, Philippe Minodier, Philippe Gautret
Pages: 69 - 75
The objective of this study was to describe the overall pattern of morbidity and mortality of children seen at the Thai Binh Paediatric Hospital in Vietnam, with a focus on infectious diseases. A retrospective review of hospitalisation records was conducted from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019. Data...
Research Article

Mass Gathering Medicine (Hajj Pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia): The Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation during Hajj

Bader Hamza Shirah, Fareed Abdulmuhsen Al Nozha, Syed Husham Zafar, Hussain Mohammed Kalumian
Pages: 71 - 75
The annual Hajj (pilgrimage) to the Islamic holy shrines at the city of Makkah in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the largest yearly recurring mass gatherings worldwide. We aim to evaluate the outcome of outside and inside the hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation to resuscitate cardiopulmonary...
Research Article

Population-attributable fraction of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the Central Provinces of Iran

Masoud Mohammadi, Masoud Mirzaei
Pages: 71 - 79
The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Iran over the past decade. This study aimed to determine the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the central provinces of Iran. Prevalence of hypertension was...
Research Article

Putting surveillance data into context: The role of health care utilization surveys in understanding population burden of pneumonia in developing countries

Meredith Deutscher, Chris Van Beneden, Deron Burton, Alvin Shultz, Oliver W. Morgan, Shadi Chamany, Hannah T. Jordan, Xingyou Zhang, Brendan Flannery, Daniel R. Feikin, Beatrice Olack, Kim A. Lindblade, Robert F. Breiman, Sonja J. Olsen
Pages: 73 - 81
Background: Surveillance is essential to estimating the global burden of pneumonia, yet differences in surveillance methodology and health care-seeking behaviors limit inter-country comparisons. Methods: Results were compared from community surveys measuring health care-seeking for pneumonia defined...
Research Article

A national survey of childhood physical abuse among females in Swaziland

Matthew J. Breiding, James A. Mercy, Jama Gulaid, Avid Reza, Nonhlanhla Hleta-Nkambule
Pages: 73 - 81
Objective: This study describes the scope and characteristics of childhood physical abuse in a nationally representative sample of 13–24 year-old females in Swaziland. The current study also examined health consequences and risk factors of childhood physical abuse. Methods: The study utilized a two-stage...
Research Article

Dengue Outbreak Response and Control in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A Mixed Methods Study

Mohamed Ali Mohamud, Umair Qazi, Abdul Latif, Iftikhar Uddin Khan, Saeed Anwar
Pages: 74 - 81
Background: Since 2008, dengue fever outbreaks had occurred repeatedly in various districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. Most importantly the outbreak of 2017 caused 70 deaths, about 121,083 suspected and 24,938 confirmed cases in 23 districts of KP. In 2018, an abrupt decline in...
Research Article

Anaesthesia, surgery, obstetrics, and emergency care in Guyana

H.J. Vansell, J.J. Schlesinger, A. Harvey, J.P. Rohde, S. Persaud, K.A. McQueen
Pages: 75 - 83
The surgical and anaesthesia needs of low-income countries are mostly unknown due to the lack of data on surgical infrastructure and human resources. The goal of this study is to assess the surgical and anaesthesia capacity in Guyana. A survey tool adapted from the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis...
Research Article

Exploring Sexual Behaviour and Associated Factors among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia: A Call to End Ignorance

Ali Saad R. Alsubaie
Pages: 76 - 80
Little is known about sexual behaviour, attitudes, and associated factors among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using a multistage sampling technique was conducted among 453 male adolescents selected from high schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. About 54.1% of the adolescents practiced...
Research Article

Estimated Number of People who Inject Drugs in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Findings from a Two-survey Capture–Recapture Population Size Estimation Exercise

Nghia Van Khuu, Phuc Duy Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Hoa Thi Yen Luong, Van Thi Thu Tieu, Hau Phuc Tran, Thuong Vu Nguyen, Meade Morgan, Abu S. Abdul-Quader
Pages: 76 - 82
Background: HIV/AIDS program managers in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam have always relied on the police reports and the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package for population size estimation of People Who Inject Drugs (PWID). Methods: We used Respondent-driven Sampling (RDS) to implement a two-source...
Research Article

Association between the Human Development Index and Millennium Development Goals 6 Indicators in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2000 to 2014: Implications for the New Sustainable Development Goals

MLH Mabaso, TP Zama, L Mlangeni, S Mbiza, ZL Mkhize-Kwitshana
Pages: 77 - 81
It is important to assess whether regional progress toward achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) has contributed to human development and whether this has had an effect on the triple burden of disease in the continent. This analysis investigates the association between the human development...
Research Article

Healthcare-seeking behaviors for acute respiratory illness in two communities of Java, Indonesia: a cross-sectional survey

Catharina Y. Praptiningsih, Kathryn E. Lafond, Yunita Wahyuningrum, Aaron D. Storms, Amalya Mangiri, Angela D. Iuliano, Gina Samaan, Christiana R. Titaley, Fitra Yelda, Jennifer Kreslake, Douglas Storey, Timothy M. Uyeki
Pages: 77 - 86
Understanding healthcare-seeking patterns for respiratory illness can help improve estimations of disease burden and inform public health interventions to control acute respiratory disease in Indonesia. The objectives of this study were to describe healthcare-seeking behaviors for respiratory illnesses...
Research Article

Prevalence, Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on School Children in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

Marwan A. Bakarman, Moustafa A. Hegazi, Nadeem S. Butt
Pages: 81 - 87
Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) are a major public health problem worldwide, especially among children with a need for periodical evaluation of prevalence and risk factors to adopt an appropriate prevention strategy. This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted to identify prevalence,...
Research Article

Ecological correlations of dietary food intake and mental health disorders

Jordan Hoerr, Joshua Fogel, Benjamin Van Voorhees
Pages: 81 - 89
This paper examines the ecological association of dietary food intake with mental health outcomes on the group level across countries. Published data from the World Mental Health Survey were used to compare lifetime prevalence of four categories of mental health disorders (anxiety disorders, mood disorders,...
Research Article

Assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among final year students in Yazd, central Iran

Fatemah Behnaz, Golnaz Mohammadzade, Razieh S. Mousavi-e-roknabadi, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh
Pages: 81 - 85
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential...
Research Article

Factors Associated with Functional Disability Among Lebanese Elderly Living in Rural Areas: Role of Polypharmacy, Alcohol Consumption, and Nutrition-based on the Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese (AMEL) Study

Elias Zgheib, Elsy Ramia, Souheil Hallit, Christa Boulos, Pascale Salameh
Pages: 82 - 90
The objective is to describe disability risk factors in Lebanese elderly living in rural settings, focusing on the role of polypharmacy, alcohol consumption, and nutrition. The Aging and Malnutrition in Elderly Lebanese study, a cross-sectional population-based one (April 2011–April 2012), included 1200...
Research Article

HIV Testing among General Population with Sexually Transmitted Infection: Findings from Myanmar Demographic and Health Survey (2015–16)

Kyaw Lwin Show, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Khin Thet Wai, San Hone, Htun Nyunt Oo
Pages: 82 - 85
Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing and counseling is recommended for people with Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). In Myanmar, HIV testing and its predictors among those with STI in general population is unknown. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data...
Research Article

On the reliability of self-reported health: Evidence from Albanian data☆

Nicolas Vaillant, François-Charles Wolff
Pages: 83 - 98
This paper investigates the reliability of self-assessed measures of health using panel data collected in Albania by the World Bank in 2002, 2003 and 2004 through the Living Standard Measurement Study project. As the survey includes questions on a self-assessed measure of health and on more objective...
Research Article

Epidemiology of mental health problems in female students: A questionnaire survey

Mehdi Mokhtari, Somayeh Farhang Dehghan, Mehdi Asghari, Uonees Ghasembaklo, Ghasem Mohamadyari, Seyed Ali Azadmanesh, Elmira Akbari
Pages: 83 - 88
Mental health as a state of well-being can be affected by gender. The present work aims to examine the mental health status in female students and recognize its affecting factors. A cross-sectional study on female students of Payame-Noor University in West Azerbaijan, Iran, was conducted among 1632 students....
Research Article

Estimating Catastrophic Costs due to Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Bangladesh

Anita Sharif Chowdhury, Md Shakil Ahmed, Sayem Ahmed, Fouzia Khanam, Fariha Farjana, Saifur Reza, Shayla Islam, Akramul Islam, Jahangir A.M. Khan, Mahfuzar Rahman
Pages: 83 - 91
To eliminate TB from the country by the year 2030, the Bangladesh National Tuberculosis (TB) Program is providing free treatment to the TB patients since 1993. However, the patients are still to make Out-of-their Pocket (OOP) payment, particularly before their enrollment Directly Observed Treatment Short-course...
Short Communication

Factors associated with incident HIV infection versus prevalent infection among youth in Rakai, Uganda

Zoe R. Edelstein, John S. Santelli, Stephane Helleringer, Ashley C. Schuyler, Ying Wei, Sanyukta Mathur, Xiaoyu Song, Tom Lutalo, Fred Nalugoda, Ronald H. Gray, Maria J. Wawer, David M. Serwadda
Pages: 85 - 91
Factors associated with prevalent and incident HIV infection were compared among sexually experienced Ugandans aged 15–24. Most factors were similar. However, in women, older age and current marriage were associated with prevalent, but not incident, infection. It is important to recognize the limitations...
Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Lebanese Community Pharmacists toward Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Souheil Hallit, Rouba Karen Zeidan, Sylvia Saade, Aline Hajj, Rabih Hallit, Charbel Yahchouchy, Nelly Kheir, Katia Iskandar, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh
Pages: 86 - 95
Inclusion of a pharmacist showed that pharmacy-led patient education can positively impact treatment outcome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) knowledge, medication adherence, quality of life, significant reduction in hospital admission rates, and emergency department visits. The objectives...
Research Article

Egyptian students’ guardians knowledge, attitude and predictors of negative attitude of epilepsy in Assiut city

Ghaydaa A. Shehata, Dalia G. Mahran
Pages: 87 - 95
Background: Epilepsy is very prevalent in Egypt, approaching 6.98 per 1000 population. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards epilepsy among guardians of Egyptian high school students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was made among guardians (parents/guardians) of high...
Research Article

A retrospective analysis of meningioma in Central Texas

Ekokobe Fonkem, Jad A. Dandashi, Edana Stroberg, David Garrett, Frank S. Harris, Ibrahim M. El Nihum, James Cooper, Samantha Dayawansa, Jason H. Huang
Pages: 87 - 93
Documented meningioma cases in Central Texas (USA) from 1976 to 2013 were studied utilizing the Scott & White Brain Tumor Registry. All the cases examined were histologically diagnosed as meningiomas. Of the 372 cases, most were benign tumors (p < 0.05). A majority of the patients were females...
Research Article

Perinatal factors and breast cancer risk among Hispanics

Maureen Sanderson, Adriana Pérez, Mirabel L. Weriwoh, Leah R. Alexander, Gerson Peltz, Vincent Agboto, Heather O’Hara, Waseem Khoder
Pages: 89 - 94
Purpose: This study assessed whether perinatal factors were associated with breast cancer among Hispanics, a group with fairly low incidence rates of breast cancer. Methods: Data were used from a case–control study of breast cancer among Hispanics aged 30–79 conducted between 2003 and 2008 on the Texas–Mexico...

The Enduring Plague: How Tuberculosis in Canadian Indigenous Communities is Emblematic of a Greater Failure in Healthcare Equality

Sarah Hick
Pages: 89 - 92
Despite global strides made in prevention and treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an acute problem for Indigenous people in Canada. TB affects Indigenous communities at significantly higher rates than the general Canadian population, for whom it is a disease of the past. This paper suggests how colonialism...
Research Article

An Exposure Appraisal of Outdoor Air Pollution on the Respiratory Well-being of a Developing City Population

Yahaya A. Aliyu, Joel O. Botai
Pages: 91 - 100
Zaria is the educational hub of northern Nigeria. It is a developing city with a pollution level high enough to be ranked amongst the World Health Organization’s (WHO) most polluted cities. The study appraised the influence of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory well-being of a population in a limited...
Short Communication

Disaster response under One Health in the aftermath of Nepal earthquake, 2015

G.V. Asokan, A. Vanitha
Pages: 91 - 96
Until now, an estimate quotes that 1100 healthcare facilities were damaged and over 100,000 livestock lost in the two earthquakes that occurred in April and May of 2015 in Nepal. Threats of infectious diseases, mostly zoonoses, could affect Nepal’s economy, trade, and tourism, and reaching the targets...
Research Article

Geographic, Subject, and Authorship Trends among LMIC-based Scientific Publications in High-impact Global Health and General Medicine Journals: A 30-Month Bibliometric Analysis

Marium Ghani, Rowan Hurrell, Avelino C. Verceles, Michael T. McCurdy, Alfred Papali
Pages: 92 - 97
The globalization of medical research and global health’s increasing popularity worldwide have resulted in greater geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic diversity of studies published in the scientific literature. Yet the geographic distribution, authorship representation, and subject trends among Low-/Low-Middle-Income...

Cross-border Collaboration to Improve Access to Medicine: Association of Southeast Asian Nations Perspective

Kah Seng Lee, Long Chiau Ming, Qi Ying Lean, Siew Mei Yee, Rahul Patel, Nur Akmar Taha, Yaman Walid Kassab
Pages: 93 - 97
Research Article

Prevalence of self-reported diabetes, hypertension and heart disease in individuals seeking State funding in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

Derek Chadee, Terence Seemungal, Lexley M. Pinto Pereira, Mary Chadee, Rohan Maharaj, Surujpal Teelucksingh
Pages: 95 - 103
Objective: Diabetes, hypertension and heart disease inflict a heavy health burden on the Caribbean Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. This study assessed the prevalence of self- reported diabetes, hypertension and heart disease in lower socioeconomically placed individuals accessing welfare grants. Method:...
Letter to Editor

Incidence of acute-onset atrial fibrillation correlates with air temperature. Results of a nine-year survey

Ivan Comelli, Gianfranco Cervellin, Jayme Ferro, Denis Comelli, Elisabetta Sartori, Giuseppe Lippi
Pages: 95 - 97
Research Article

Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5 years of age

Yagob Almazrou, Atef M. Shibl, Riyadh Alkhlaif, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Sameh Anis, Walid Kandeil, William P. Hausdorff
Pages: 95 - 104
This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5 years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas,...
Research Article

Evaluation of Public Health Education and Workforce Needs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Mohammed Al-Mohaithef, Nargis Begum Javed, Ahmed ME Elkhalifa, Mohammed Tahash, Sriram Chandramohan, Ahmed Hazazi, Fatima Elsheikh Mohammed Elhadi
Pages: 96 - 106
Background: An efficient public health workforce is necessary for improving and maintaining the health of population and such a workforce can be prepared through proper educational programs and trainings. Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the needs in the public health education programs,...
Research Article

Difference in cerebral blood flow velocity in neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia

Sriparna Basu, Dibyajyoti De, Ram Chandra Shukla, Ashok Kumar
Pages: 97 - 106
Purpose: To evaluate the difference in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in neonates with and without hyperbilirubinemia. Methods: CBFV of 70 healthy late-preterm and term newborns with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (UCH) reaching the threshold of phototherapy requirement was compared with 70 gestational-...

Building Capacity for Mortality Statistics Programs: Perspectives from the Indonesian Experience

Chalapati Rao, Yuslely Usman, Matthew Kelly, Trijuni Angkasawati, Soewarta Kosen
Pages: 98 - 102
Information on deaths by age, sex, and cause are primary inputs for health policy and epidemiological research. Currently, most developing countries lack efficient death registration systems that generate these data on a routine and timely basis. The global community is promoting initiatives to establish...
Research Article

Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of 28-Day Mortality in 352 Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Study

Abdulrahman Alharthy, Waleed Aletreby, Fahad Faqihi, Abdullah Balhamar, Feisal Alaklobi, Khaled Alanezi, Parameaswari Jaganathan, Hani Tamim, Saleh A Alqahtani, Dimitrios Karakitsos, Ziad A Memish
Pages: 98 - 104
Background: Since the first COVID-19 patient in Saudi Arabia (March, 2020) more than 338,539 cases and approximately 4996 dead were reported. We present the main characteristics and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients that were admitted in the largest Ministry of Health Intensive Care Unit (ICU)...
Short Communication

Progress on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: Highlights of the 27th International Papillomavirus Conference in Berlin, 17–22 September 2011

Ziad El-Khatib, Joseph E. Tota, Andreas M. Kaufmann
Pages: 99 - 102
Highlights of the International Papillomavirus Conference in Berlin, 17–22 September 2011.
Research Article

Investigation of OMNIgene·SPUTUM performance in delayed tuberculosis testing by smear, culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF assays in Uganda

C.D. Kelly-Cirino, E. Musisi, P. Byanyima, S. Kaswabuli, A. Andama, A. Sessolo, I. Sanyu, J. Zawedde, P.S. Curry, L. Huang
Pages: 103 - 109
OMNIgene·SPUTUM (OM-S) is a sample transport reagent designed to work with all tuberculosis diagnostics while eliminating the need for cold chain. OM-S-treated sputum samples were assayed in several tests after multiday holds. Raw sputa from 100 patients underwent direct smear microscopy, were manually...
Research Article

Association between iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren of the North-West Province, South Africa

Oluseye O. Onabanjo, Johann C. Jerling, Namukolo Covic, Averalda Van Graan, Christine Taljaard, Ramoteme L. Mamabolo
Pages: 103 - 110
Iron deficiency with or without anemia is associated with increased susceptibility to infection owing to impaired immune function; this study aimed to examine the associations between markers of iron status and white blood cell counts in African schoolchildren. This cross-sectional study is part of the...
Research Article

Energy drink usage among university students in a Caribbean country: Patterns of use and adverse effects

Sandra D. Reid, Jonathan Ramsarran, Rachel Brathwaite, Sarika Lyman, Ariane Baker, D’Andra C. Cornish, Stefan Ganga, Zahrid Mohammed, Avinash T. Sookdeo, Cathrine K. Thapelo
Pages: 103 - 116
Objective: There has been little inquiry addressing whether or not concerns about adverse effects of energy drink usage are relevant in the Caribbean. This survey investigated energy drink usage and adverse consequences among tertiary level students in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: A cross-sectional...
Research Article

Depression in Rural Communities and Primary Care Clinics in Chiapas, Mexico

Michael L. Elliott, Mercedes Aguerrebere, Patrick F. Elliott
Pages: 103 - 106
Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and can be diagnosed and treated in primary care clinics. No studies to date have demonstrated the prevalence of depression in rural, primary care settings in Mexico. The objective of this study is to describe the prevalence of visits for depression...
Research Article

Trajectories of tuberculosis-specific interferon-gamma release assay responses among medical and nursing students in rural India

Alice Zwerling, Rajnish Joshi, S.P. Kalantri, Gajalakshmi Dakshinamoorthy, Maryada Venkatarama Reddy, Andrea Benedetti, Kevin Schwartzman, Dick Menzies, Madhukar Pai
Pages: 105 - 117
Background: Interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) have been shown to be highly dynamic tests when used in serial testing for TB infection. However, there is little information demonstrating a clear association between TB exposure and IGRA responses over time, particularly in high TB incidence settings. Objectives:...
Research Article

A longitudinal cohort study of the relationship between Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccination and specific delays in development in the United States: Assessment of attributable risk and lifetime care costs

David A. Geier, Janet K. Kern, Brian S. Hooker, Paul G. King, Lisa K. Sykes, Mark R. Geier
Pages: 105 - 118
Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between mercury (Hg) exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and specific delays in development. A hypothesis-testing longitudinal cohort study (n = 49,835) using medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) was undertaken to evaluate the relationship...
Research Article

Coexisting Conditions among Children and Adolescents with Cancer in a Section of the South African Private Health Sector: Perspectives from Drug Utilization Data

Marianne N. Otoo, Martie S. Lubbe, Hanlie Steyn, Johanita R. Burger
Pages: 105 - 116
Coexisting conditions are relatively common in children with cancer, however, there is a paucity of information on the prevalence of coexisting conditions in children with cancer in South Africa. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the common coexisting conditions occurring in children...
Short Communication

Overweight Risk and Food Habits in Portuguese Pre-school Children

A.M. Machado-Rodrigues, R.A. Fernandes, Maria-Raquel Silva, A. Gama, I. Mourão, H. Nogueira, V. Rosado-Marques, C. Padez
Pages: 106 - 109
The relationship between dietary intake and overweight-risk was assessed in 4349 children aged 3–5 years. Eating and sedentary behaviours were assessed by questionnaire. Logistic regressions were used. Children who consumed daily soft-drinks were 1.52 times more likely to be obese, and 72% more likely...
Research Article

Effects of habitat characteristics on the growth of carrier population leading to increased spread of typhoid fever: A model

J.B. Shukla, Ashish Goyal, Shikha Singh, Peeyush Chandra
Pages: 107 - 114
In this paper, a non-linear model is proposed and analyzed to study the effects of habitat characteristics favoring logistically growing carrier population leading to increased spread of typhoid fever. It is assumed that the cumulative density of habitat characteristics and the density of carrier population...
Research Article

Lassa Fever-associated Stigmatization among Staff and Students of the University of Benin, Nigeria

Stella Folajole Usifoh, Amienwanlen Eugene Odigie, Stephena Udinmande Ighedosa, Edwin Aihanuwa Uwagie-Ero, Isoken Tito Aighewi
Pages: 107 - 115
Lassa Fever (LF) remains a health burden in several endemic areas of Nigeria, and its toll remains unabated over several decades. Although most studies have focused on virological and clinical considerations, few studies have attempted to address the perceived psychosocial component of LF disease in...
Research Article

Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes – Global Burden of Disease and Forecasted Trends

Moien Abdul Basith Khan, Muhammad Jawad Hashim, Jeffrey Kwan King, Romona Devi Govender, Halla Mustafa, Juma Al Kaabi
Pages: 107 - 111
The rising burden of type 2 diabetes is a major concern in healthcare worldwide. This research aimed to analyze the global epidemiology of type 2 diabetes. We analyzed the incidence, prevalence, and burden of suffering of diabetes mellitus based on epidemiological data from the Global Burden of Disease...
Review Article

Global Health Diplomacy: Between Global Society and Neo-Colonialism: The Role and Meaning of “Ethical Lens” in Performing the Six Leadership Priorities

Michele Rubbini
Pages: 110 - 114
Establishing indicators oriented towards the creation of a global society to the detriment of new forms of neo-colonialism. In the relations between Developed and Emerging Countries as part of the Global Health Diplomacy, there is a risk that the former can adopt behaviors induced by the financial needs...
Research Article

Magnitude and determinants of adverse treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in a Tuberculosis Unit, Wardha, Central India: A record-based cohort study

Anuj Mundra, Pradeep R. Deshmukh, Ajay Dawale
Pages: 111 - 118
Introduction: Deaths, defaults, relapses, and treatment failures have made the control of TB difficult across the globe. Methodology: This study is a record-based follow-up of a cohort of patients registered under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program in the year 2014 in Wardha Tuberculosis...
Research Article

The use of epidemiological measures to estimate the impact of primary prevention interventions on CHD, stroke and cancer outcomes: Experiences from Herefordshire, UK

Ahmed M. Syed, Alison Talbot-Smith, Isla Gemmell
Pages: 111 - 124
Background: CHD, stroke and cancers are the major causes of mortality in the UK and are responsible for significant amounts of morbidity and healthcare costs. This study examines the proportion of CHD, stroke and cancer owing to specific risk factors in Herefordshire, UK. It estimates the population...

Erratum to “Relationship between the Human Development Index and its Components with Oral Cancer in Latin America” [J Epidemiol Global Health 9(4), 2019, 223–232]

Brenda Yuliana Herrera-Serna, Edith Lara-Carrillo, Victor Hugo Toral-Rizo, Regiane Cristina do Amaral, Raul Alberto Aguilera-Eguía
Pages: 112 - 112
Research Article

Epidemiology of HBV in Pregnant Women, South West Nigeria

Glory Atilola, Obadara Tomisin, Mayowa Randle, Komolafe O. Isaac, Gbenga Odutolu, Josephine Olomu, Laide Adenuga
Pages: 115 - 123
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, maternal complications, and neonatal deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Pregnant women serve as a major reservoir for the persistence and ongoing transmission of hepatitis B virus and HIV in a generalized heterosexual epidemic. The aim...
Research Article

The global cancer divide: Relationships between national healthcare resources and cancer outcomes in high-income vs. middle- and low-income countries

Ali Batouli, Pooya Jahanshahi, Cary P. Gross, Danil V. Makarov, James B. Yu
Pages: 115 - 124
Background: Cancer continues to rise as a contributor to premature death in the developing world. Despite this, little is known about whether cancer outcomes are related to a country’s income level, and what aspects of national healthcare systems are associated with improved cancer outcomes. Methods:...

COVID-19 in Turkey: Lessons Learned

Banu Cakir
Pages: 115 - 117
Turkey reported its first COVID-19 case on March 10, 2020. We present here the mitigation efforts Turkey has undertaken so far, and also review the lessons learned for future proactive strategies. High number of intensive care unit beds and ventilators, national treatment algorithms, governmental support...
Research Article

Predictors of Persistent Body Weight Misclassification from Adolescence Period to Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

Abdulaziz Dakhel Aloufi, Jake Moses Najman, Abdullah Al Mamun
Pages: 116 - 124
This study examined whether body weight misclassification continues from adolescence to adulthood and the associated predictors behind that misclassification. Data are from a sample of a longitudinal Australian birth-cohort study. Data analyses were restricted to 2938 participants whose measured and...
Research Article

Lebanese medical students’ intention to deliver smoking cessation advice

Hoda Jradi, Mary Ellen Wewers, Phyllis P. Pirie, Philip F. Binkley, Amy K. Ferketich
Pages: 117 - 123
Objectives: Objectives of this study were to examine the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and determine how they predict Lebanese medical students’ behavioral intention to advise patients to quit smoking. Study design: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 191 medical students...
Research Article

COVID-19-related Traumatic Effects and Psychological Reactions among International Students

Bijia Song, Yilin Zhao, Junchao Zhu
Pages: 117 - 123
Objective: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to people’s psychological resilience. Students are reported to have greater psychological impacts from COVID-19. This study aimed to survey international students to...
Research Article

COVID-19 Epidemic and Public Health Measures in China

Tingting Xu, Ruoyu Yang
Pages: 118 - 123
Objectives: The study aims to analyze the status quo of public health emergency measures taken in China in dealing with the spread of new coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19), and to put forward policy suggestions for system construction and improvement. Methods: According to the official data released...
Research Article

Predictors of hepatitis C testing intention among African American Baby Boomers

Mohamed Rashrash, Mary Maneno, Anthony Wutoh, Earl Ettienne, Monika Daftary
Pages: 119 - 122
Baby Boomers (BBs) are responsible for three-quarters of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in the United States; however, HCV testing is distinctly underused by them. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of HCV testing and to evaluate predictors of HCV testing intention among...
Short Communication

Addressing non-communicable diseases in disaster risk reduction – an issue of equity

Sam Gnanapragasam, Amina Aitsi-Selmi, Elaine Rashbrook, Virginia Murray
Pages: 119 - 121
The issues raised by noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during and after disasters are a challenge to equity within local communities, as well as between countries. Individuals with NCDs are particularly vulnerable in disasters and their aftermath given health systems are disrupted. Although welcome progress...
Research Article

Incidence and economic burden of acute otitis media in children aged up to 5 years in three Middle Eastern countries and Pakistan: A multinational, retrospective, observational study

Ghulam Mustafa, Amal Y. Al Aidaroos, Idris S. Al Abaidani, Kinga Meszaros, Kusuma Gopala, Mehmet Ceyhan, Mohamad Al-Tannir, Rodrigo DeAntonio, Shyam Bawikar, Johannes E. Schmidt
Pages: 123 - 130
Epidemiological data on acute otitis media (AOM), an infectious disease frequently affecting children, are lacking in some countries. This study was undertaken to assess the incidence of AOM in children ≤5 years in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Pakistan, and Turkey, as well as the economic burden from a parent/caregiver...
Research Article

Risk analysis of needle stick and sharp object injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital (Saudi Arabia)

Ziad A. Memish, Abdullah M. Assiri, Mervat M. Eldalatony, Hanan M. Hathout, Hend Alzoman, Monabae Undaya
Pages: 123 - 129
Objective: To study different risk factors associated with needle stick injury among health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Subjects and methodology: Retrospective study involving all reported cases of needle stick and sharp object injury among health care workers through using...
Research Article

The Predictive Value of Personality Traits for Psychological Problems (Stress, Anxiety and Depression): Results from a Large Population Based Study

Zeinab Alizadeh, Awat Feizi, Mehri Rejali, Hamid Afshar, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Peyman Adibi
Pages: 124 - 133
The current study aimed to determine the prognostic values of personality traits for common psychological problems in a large sample of Iranian adult. In a large sample of healthy people (n = 4763) who lived in Isfahan province; the NEO-FFI was used to assess the personality traits; depression and anxiety...
Research Article

Prevalence and Factors Associated with Insomnia Among a Representative Sample of the Lebanese Population: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

Gloria Al Karaki, Souheil Hallit, Diana Malaeb, Nelly Kheir, Hala Sacre, Pascale Salameh, Rabih Hallit
Pages: 124 - 130
The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of insomnia among a representative sample of the Lebanese population and to assess potential factors associated with insomnia among this group. A cross-sectional study was done in the Lebanese population from August 2017 to April 2018 enrolling...
Research Article

Screening Strategy of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Sheltered Homeless People in Marseille, 2019

Tran Duc Anh Ly, Floriane Holi-Jamovski, Van Thuan Hoang, Ndiaw Goumballa, Meriem Louni, Thi Loi Dao, Michel Drancourt, Philippe Gautret
Pages: 124 - 131
We aimed to assess the reliability of a screening questionnaire for Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis (APTB) in a population of sheltered homeless persons (HP). Participants from two homeless shelters completed a questionnaire specially designed to identify patients at high-risk of APTB (available at,...
Research Article

Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

Jessica K. Paulus, Rocío Santoyo-Vistrain, David Havelick, Amy Cohen, Robert Kalyesubula, Ikeoluwapo O. Ajayi, Jens G. Mattsson, Hans-Olov Adami, Shona Dalal
Pages: 125 - 133
A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents...
Research Article

Final program evaluation methods and results of a National Lymphedema Management Program in Togo, West Africa

Josh Ziperstein, Monique Dorkenoo, Michel Datagni, Naomi Drexler, Monica Murphy, Yao Sodahlon, Els Mathieu
Pages: 125 - 133
In order to eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) as a public health problem, the World Health Assembly recommends an approach which includes interruption of transmission of infection and the alleviation of morbidity. In 2000, the Togolese National Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PNELF) started...
Research Article

Adherence to medications and associated factors: A cross-sectional study among Palestinian hypertensive patients

Rowa’ Al-Ramahi
Pages: 125 - 132
Objective: To assess adherence of Palestinian hypertensive patients to therapy and to investigate the effect of a range of demographic and psychosocial variables on medication adherence. Methods: A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken at a group of outpatient clinics...
Review Article

Bradford Hill’s criteria, emerging zoonoses, and One Health

G.V. Asokan, Vanitha Asokan
Pages: 125 - 129
Zoonoses constitute more than 60% of infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases. Inappropriate overemphasis of specialization of disciplines has ignored public health. Identifying the causes of disease and determining how exposures are related to outcomes in “emerging zoonoses” affecting...
Research Article

Detection of Antibody and Antigen for Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein in Monkeys from Southern Nigeria

Bamidele Nyemike Ogunro, Babasola Oluseyi Olugasa, Adeyemi Kayode, Olayinka Olabisi Ishola, Oluseyi Noah Kolawole, Eugene Amiewanlen Odigie, Christian Happi
Pages: 125 - 127
Lassa fever is a deadly viral haemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa Virus (LASV). Rodents, especially, Mystomys natalensis, are the known reservoirs of LASV and humans are the defined hosts. Monkeys share many illnesses with humans and experimental LASV infections in monkeys are fatal but natural LASV infection...
Research Article

Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia among Adult Males in a Rural Area of Haryana, India

Shashi Kant, Rakesh Kumar, Sumit Malhotra, Ravneet Kaur, Partha Haldar
Pages: 128 - 134
Anemia is an under-recognized morbidity among adult males causing significant productivity loss. A study was done among adult males (≥18 years) in a rural area of Haryana, India to estimate the prevalence and determinants of anemia and to explore their attitude and beliefs about anemia. Mixed methods...
Research Article

Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries

Salman Khazaei, Vajihe Armanmehr, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Shahab Rezaeian, Somayeh Khazaei
Pages: 131 - 134
There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI) and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study,...
Research Article

Skin diseases in patients with primary psychiatric conditions: A hospital based study

Nayera H. Moftah, Abeer M. Kamel, Hussein M. Attia, Mona Z. El-Baz, Hala M. Abd El–Moty
Pages: 131 - 138
Background: Although the relationship between skin diseases in patients with primary psychiatric conditions is important for patient management, studies on this issue are limited. Objective: To detect the frequency and type of cutaneous disorders among patients with primary psychiatric conditions. Subjects...
Research Article

Household wealth, residential status and the incidence of diarrhoea among children under-five years in Ghana

Akwasi Kumi-Kyereme, Joshua Amo-Adjei
Pages: 131 - 140
This study examines the impact that the joint effect of household wealth quintile and urban–rural residence has on the incidence of diarrhoea among Ghanaian children. Data for this paper were drawn from the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) of 2006. Descriptive and logistic regression was...
Research Article

Number of People who Inject Drugs in Son La, Vietnam: Population Size Estimation Based on Official Records

Le Anh Tuan, Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha, Quan Dinh Nguyen, Giang Tong Le, Duong Cong Thanh, Meade Morgan, Abu S. Abdul-Quader
Pages: 131 - 134
Aims: Estimated population sizes of key populations are critical for resource allocation as well as for monitoring program performance to prevent HIV infection. In 2018, using official records we recruited and conducted a brief survey among People Who Use Drugs (PWUD) to estimate the population size...
Research Article

Primary Bone Tumors in North of Jordan

Khaldoon M. Bashaireh, Mohammed Alorjani, Rami A. Jahmani, Abedallah Al Khateeb, Faisal Nimri, Mohammad A. Al-Ebbini, Abdel Rhaman M. Ababneh
Pages: 132 - 136
Objective: Primary tumors of bone are relatively uncommon. Little information is available about the etiology, pathophysiology, risk factors and epidemiologic features of bone tumors. In this article, we present the epidemiological data about the primary (benign and malignant) bone tumors in Jordan. Methods:...
Research Article

A cross-sectional study of pediatric eye care perceptions in Ghana, Honduras, and India

Daryl Ramai, Ryan Elliott, Shoshanna Goldin, Tejas Pulisetty
Pages: 133 - 142
Of the more than 1.4 million blind children worldwide, 75% live in developing countries. To reduce the prevalence of childhood blindness and associated diseases, attention is given to understanding the perceptions and level of awareness held by caregivers. This understanding can enable tailored health...
Research Article

Demographic, Socio-economic and Lifestyle Determinants of Under- and Over-nutrition among Bangladeshi Adult Population: Results from a Large Cross-Sectional Study

Dipak K. Mitra, Sabuj Kanti Mistry, Kaosar Afsana, Mahfuzar Rahman
Pages: 134 - 142
Bangladesh is currently going through a nutritional transition with rapid increase in overnutrition while undernutrition is still remaining prevalent. Nevertheless, population-based data on demographic, socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with underweight and overweight among adult population...
Research Article

A survey of hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in health screening camps of rural central Punjab, Pakistan

Salman T. Shafi, Tahir Shafi
Pages: 135 - 140
Hypertension is a global public health problem with increasing prevalence. There is limited updated information on the prevalence of hypertension in the Pakistani population. This is a cross-sectional study based on data collected during multiple health screening camps held at multiple locations in rural...
Research Article

An updated global picture of cigarette smoking persistence among adults

Jonathan P. Troost, David A. Barondess, Carla L. Storr, J. Elisabeth Wells, Ali Obaid Al-Hamzawi, Laura Helena Andrade, Evelyn Bromet, Ronny Bruffaerts, Silvia Florescu, Giovanni de Girolamo, Ron de Graaf, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Yueqin Huang, Aimee N. Karam, Ronald C. Kessler, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Herbert Matschinger, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Siobhan O’Neill, Jose Posada-Villa, Rajesh Sagar, Tadashi Takeshima, Toma Tomov, David R. Williams, James C. Anthony
Pages: 135 - 144
Background: Cross-national variance in smoking prevalence is relatively well documented. The aim of this study is to estimate levels of smoking persistence across 21 countries with a hypothesized inverse relationship between country income level and smoking persistence. Methods: Data from the World...
Research Article

Nosocomial pathogens associated with the mobile phones of healthcare workers in a hospital in Anyigba, Kogi state, Nigeria

E.O. Nwankwo, N. Ekwunife, K.C. Mofolorunsho
Pages: 135 - 140
Background: Mobile phones of healthcare workers (HCWs) could be colonized by potential bacteria pathogens. The aim of this research is to evaluate the bacterial contamination and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates from mobile phones of HCWs in Grimad hospital. Method: A total of 112 swab samples...
Research Article

Patients’ Satisfaction after Primary Health Care Centers’ Integration with Ministry of Health Hospitals, Jeddah

Mashal Mesfer Alsayali, Abdullah Al-Sahafi, Najlaa Mandoura, Hassan Bin Usman Shah, Ola Akram Abdul Rashid, Khalid AlSharif, Amany Hamed Abo Zayed, Adel Ibrahim, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fatima Al-Garni, Mahmoud Madani Alali, Abdullah Al-Garni, Mohammed Assiri, Assiri Ibrahim Mohammad
Pages: 135 - 142
In today’s competitive and media-influenced health care environment, resource utilization is driven by patient outcome. A key criterion to evaluate the quality of health care services is to assess patients’ satisfaction. The objectives of this study were to compare patients’ satisfaction in the first...